Spain added almost 434,000 jobs in 2014 and at the end of December almost a quarter of employees had temporary status with few rights and low pay.
Spain traditionally has had high unemployment with a rate of 21% in 1997 and at the peak of the construction boom a rate of 8% while the temporay jobs level is among the highest in Europe along with Poland and Portugal.
About 38% of workers in Japan are temporary and the rate is also above 30% in South Korea - in ageing societies it's toxic to have a lot of young people unable to afford to have a home or children.
The Spanish national statistics office reported Thursday that employment rose by 65,100 persons in the fourth quarter - traditionally a weak one - compared with the previous quarter, reaching a total of 17.5m employed persons. Employment rose by 433,900 in the last 12 months. The annual increase was 2.53%.
Permanent employment increased by 212,800 in the year and temporary employment by 176,900. The number of independent workers or businesspersons fell by 7,300 in the quarter and rose by 43,400 in the year.
Employment rose in Services (344,200 more employed persons), Industry (98,000) and Construction (40,000), and it fell in Agriculture (48,400 less).
The labour market survey showed a notable increase in the workforce, suggesting that unemployed Spaniards reentered the workforce and this increase meant the overall unemployment rate rose slightly compared to the third quarter, to 23.7%. Compared with the final quarter of 2013, the jobless rate fell by more than 2%age points.
In 2012 the current government introduced labour market reforms which makes it easier to agree wage deals at factory level over collective agreements at regional or national level. It also made it simpler and cheaper to fire workers, by cutting severance pay and lowering the bar for mass dismissals when companies are in financial trouble.
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