|First Lady Michelle Obama shows NFL PLAY 60 Super Kid James Gale, 11, historical photos from previous administrations on display in the Booksellers Area during a National Football League (NFL) taping in the East Wing of the White House, Jan. 30, 2012. At right is James' mother Lisa Gale. The taping will air during the Super Bowl, Feb. 5, 2012.
Dr Peter Morici:
Friday, forecasters expect the US Labor Department to report the economy
added 135,000 jobs in December, after gaining 200,000 in December. In 2012,
weaker jobs gains are likely as consumer spending and economic activity slow.
Unemployment is expected to remain steady at 8.5%, as jobs creation
barely keeps up with adult population growth. Over the past three years, the
number of adults participating in the labor force—those employed, self employed,
or unemployed but actively looking for work-- has declined significantly. Today,
if the same percentage of adults was employed or seeking employment as when Barak Obama became president, the unemployment rate would be above 10%.
Adding adults on the sidelines, but who say they would reenter the labor market
if conditions improved and part-time workers who would prefer full-time
positions, the unemployment rate becomes 15.6%. Factoring in college
graduates in low skill positions, like counterwork at Starbucks, and the
unemployment rate is closer to 20%.
Without assertive efforts to address structural problems—huge trade deficits
with China and on oil, and expensive and ineffective regulations in banking and
health care—the country is headed for years of high youth unemployment and
permanent displacement of many older workers. These conditions are not
destiny—solutions are at hand but better leadership from the White House and
more willingness to compromise in Congress are required to turn country around.
Too Little Economic Growth
Initial estimates indicate fourth quarter economic growth was a disappointing
2.8% and averaged only 1.7% for all of 2011. Stronger consumer
spending, plus a surge in inventories and better home construction, pushed up
fourth quarter growth.
In recent months, household spending outpaced income growth, debt piled up, and
some pullback in consumer activity is now occurring. Unlike the years prior to
the financial crisis, households are not be able to refinance credit card debt
and auto loans by further mortgaging homes, and rising debt service will compel
consumers to slow down in 2012.
Slower consumer spending indicates businesses will have trouble unloading unsold
goods and inventory investments will slow in the first quarter. Together, slow
consumer spending and inventory buildup will lower first quarter growth. A bit
stronger housing construction and perhaps auto sales will help, but overall GDP
will grow at about 2% or a bit less in the first quarter—hardly enough to
inspire businesses to add more workers.
Much has been made of the need to rebuild household balance sheets—that requires
working down credit card debt and mortgage balances. The former was largely
completed last April. Now, household net worth and liquidity cannot improve much
further without existing homes prices rising; however, those continue to decline
or stagnate and millions of foreclosures will keep the market oversupplied for
In 2012, residential construction will improve by about 10% over the
previous year, because of demand for new apartment buildings - - young folks are
eschewing home ownership for fear of further declines in home values and resale
problems if necessary to change jobs. Also, many unsold existing homes are far
from cities, and demand for new homes is picking up closer to urban growth
centers and jobs.
The economy must grow at 2.5 to 3%—long term—to keep unemployment steady,
because new technology and better methods permit labor productivity to increase
2% each year and natural population increases pushes up the labor force
If conditions are mediocre and businesses cautious, productivity growth can
slip—equipment and computers are kept beyond their economically useful life.
Then unemployment can be kept steady with 2.5% growth or even 2%
but that poses risks.
Many businesses remain reluctant to hire. They don’t expect a recession but are
gearing for persistent subpar growth in the United States, slower growth in Asia
and a recession in Europe. Many firms will meet modestly growing demand with
smaller workforces—exploiting labor saving strategies to boost profits. Lower
head counts could ignite a negative feedback cycle—fewer employees at enough
firms would instigate lower spending and less demand for all firms and then
layoffs would cascade.
The U.S. economy moving along at 2 or even 2.5% growth is like an
airplane flying at low altitude. In a steady environment, the plane can keep
going, but the slightest unexpected obstacle and the plane ditches. A tall
obstacle may soon emerge in Europe or China, which both face formidable changes
Overall, if the recovery is not derailed, continue to expect jobs growth of
about 120,000 a month, and unemployment to gradually creep up to 9% by
the middle of the year.
New Policies Needed
The economy must add 13.0 million jobs over the next three years—361,000 each
month—to bring unemployment down to 6%. Factoring in continuing layoffs
at state and local governments and federal spending cuts, the private sector
must add about 380,000 jobs a month. To create that many jobs, GDP would have to
increase at a 4 to 5% pace—that is possible after a long deep recession
but for chronically weak demand for U.S. made goods and services.
Oil and trade with China account for nearly the entire $550 billion trade
dollars sent abroad to purchase oil and consumer goods from China that do not
return to purchase U.S. exports are lost purchasing power. Consequently, the
U.S. economy is expanding at about 2 to 2.5% a year instead of the 4 to 5% pace that is possible after a long and deep recession.
Without prompt efforts to produce more domestic oil, redress the trade imbalance
with China and the rest of Asia, the U.S. economy cannot grow and create enough
Moreover, without curbing a Washington regulatory bureaucracy out of control and
skyrocketing health care costs, the cost of doing business in America will
remain too high and most new jobs will not pay wages high enough to stop the
erosion in living standards for working Americans.
Professor, Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742-1815,
703 549 4338 Phone
703 618 4338 Cell Phone
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