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Taoiseach Enda Kenny with IDA Ireland CEO Barry O'Leary, after his visit to the New York Stock Exchange (in background), May 5, 2011.
Irish Economy 2011: It's good to have a reasoned debate on alternatives to debt
and austerity as the focus in recent times in Ireland has been to seek foreign
scapegoats for our woes, which is driven by a cocktail of questionable motives.
The Irish Times today, a former civil servant in the Department of
Finance, writes that a "self-appointed and well-concealed elite who run Brussels
will continue to siphon off the wealth and sovereignty of the Irish people until
they awake, throw off the appalling shroud of apathy that envelops them and
Robert Pye warns from the safety net of a lavish public pension: "At least the Vikings focused mainly on coastal areas, but their
latter-day counterparts are ransacking the nation from end to
end. And unless we stand our ground – a modern equivalent of the
Battle of Clontarf – they will take everything that’s worth
Pye has no prescriptions; no proposals or
advocacy of reform or how struggling firms or their workers in the private
sector would survive the fallout from an ultimatum to the "sharks and jackals
who control the international banking system" to continue funding Europe's
top earning lawyers, medical consultants and senior public servants.
On Thursday in The Irish Independent, Prof.
Gary O'Callaghan wrote: “First, the causes of the
crisis include the nefarious activities of a few individuals but are mainly
comprised of mistakes by honest people who were lulled into complacency by an
incomplete understanding of the new European monetary system.”
Smart Taxes project says
the dawning realisation that conventional economic thinking, that did not
foresee the crisis, cannot help solve the problems we now face means that we
must be open to exploring new economic ideas.
It is time to move beyond criticizing the clear shortcomings of our country’s
economists and politicians and consider – with open minds – economic ideas that
are being developed outside of the mainstream.
Such a new macroeconomic model has been developed by a pioneering community of
heterodox economists based in the University of Missouri, Kansas. Their Modern
Money Theory (MMT) approach predicted the current crisis and so unsurprisingly,
their analysis and economic solutions have attracted intense interest amongst
economic commentators including Nobel Prize winning, Paul Krugmann.
MMT will inform a number of economic policies to be presented and debated in a
conference entitled “Lessons from the Crisis: Money, Taxes and Saving in a
Changing World” co-hosted by Smart Taxes, (Fiscal Policy for Sustainability
Network) and TASC (Think Tank for Action on Social Change) on the 9th May 2011
at Croke Park, Dublin. There will be a public lecture at 6pm in the Westwood
House Hotel in Galway at 6pm on Wednesday 11th May.
Proposals such as the
European Central Bank funding a Job Guarantee Programme, are unlikely to gain
traction. But make up your own mind from Smart Taxes outline of its approach:
What does Modern Money Theory have to offer us that is different?
Although Modern Money Theory describes the money creation and management system
of a fully sovereign (i.e. currency issuing) state, MMT is still relevant to
Ireland in formulating strategy and its negotiating stance with the European
Central Bank and European Parliament to address the debt crisis.
MMT tells us that the ECB can issue currency or liquidity at no cost to itself,
nor to its constituent central banks, nor to the national economies of the
Eurozone. The ECB already tacitly acknowledges this fact because it has declined
to turn its liquidity support to the Irish banks – currently at €70b – into a
medium term loan. Such a loan is actually unnecessary and not in Ireland’s
interest as it would carry a substantially higher interest rate than the current
1% charged for the liquidity. The ECB provides the liquidity by simply crediting
it in the accounts of the banks. The pretence that the liquidity given to Irish
banks was provided in exchange for valuable assets has been shown up to be a
non-essential requirement and notional fiction because the ECB has permitted the
Irish central bank (a subsidiary of the EEB) to also credit the Irish banks
without a matching transfer of bank assets of equal or greater value.
Under the MMT perspective, a central bank should not be concerned per se by the
mounting sum in the sovereign government’s deficit account as it does not,
despite ‘common sense’ claims to the contrary, represent a debt analogous to
that of a household, business or bank debt. Instead the central bank should
watch intently for signs of inflation – of which there are few at present in our
struggling economies – as its overarching guide for money creation and taxation
levels. Taxation both destroys money – by removing it from circulation – and
gives it value – as only a national currency is ever accepted in payment of
taxes. Once it is understood that money can be safely issued by a central bank
without repayment of capital and interest and does not have to be first borrowed
in the bond market or raised in taxes (yes, that means given free) new policy
options open to tackle unemployment and inflation – not forgetting resource peak
and climate change.
Furthermore, MMT suggests that, instead of making liquidity available to the
banks, the ECB could just as easily and probably more safely, give it directly
to member state governments. It can write a metaphorical cheque for immediate
and annual distributions of for instance, 10% of GDP on a per-capita-basis to
pay down member state outstanding debts. It should, at the same time impose
national deficit ceilings sufficiently high to promote desired levels of
This positive attitude to government deficits is another counter intuitive
aspect of MMT compared to conventional analysis and goes beyond promoting
deficits to counter liquidity traps in a depression. Once you accept that all
non-government money i.e. bank money is matched by liabilities it follows then,
for the private sector to net save, the government has to be in net debt. Even
though a sovereign government does not have to sell bonds to raise money, MMT
tells us it should still do so to a certain extent, in order to provide secure
interest-bearing saving vehicles for its citizens.
Another important policy of most MMT economists is the Job Guarantee, i.e. that
the government should act as an ‘Employer of Last Resort’. A job guarantee is a
permanent job offer from the government to all citizens of a certain age who are
ready, willing, and able to work, for a basic wage. Some MMT economists suggest
that the ECB could directly fund a Job Guarantee Programme in Ireland and in any
other EMU state that requested it. Or if general EU agreement cannot be got, a
national government could fund a Job Guarantee out of their allocation of EEB
The banks of Member States would still benefit from an ECB directly or
indirectly funded Job Guarantee as the newly employed lodged their salaries in
their accounts and paid off their mortgages. The exchequer would benefit as
people came off social supports and paid income and indirect taxes out of their
wages. The resulting increase in circulating money would transfuse the economy
to provide the confidence that is so lacking and which no amount of direct
liquidity injection into the banks appears to be able to create.
The Irish Environmental Pillar contends that the jobs provided in the Job
Guarantee programme should ideally be Green Jobs and should address the most
important challenges of our time : resource peak- especially fossil fuels,
climate change and biodiversity loss. In addition to the obvious need to tackle
these issues, a Green Job Guarantee programme would have no real impact on the
public or private sectors as these environmental resources and systems are not
yet priced (i.e. are accounted as externalities) in the marketplace.
Who will Present Papers at “Learning from the Crisis” Conference?
In “Learning from the Crisis” US based MMT economists from the University of
Missouri, Kansas Dr. Randall Wray, Dr. Stephanie Kelton and Roosevelt Scholar
and fellow presenters Richard Douthwaite and David Korowicz from Feasta; The
Foundation for Sustainability, and Prof Gerry Hughes from TCD Pension Policy
Research Group, Sinéad Pentony and Tom McDonnell from TASC and Michael Taft from
Unite Trade Union. The conference is free and open to anyone whose mind is also