BANK DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS 2010
Tax havens Monaco and Liechtenstein ,
Switzerland, and Denmark were among the highest per capita Gross National Income (GNI) in the world in
2009, according to
World Bank Development Indicators 2010. Ireland is in
23rd place, according to the Atlas Method (see below) and 39th,
according to the purchasing Power Parity Method.
Ireland's high ranking is influenced by the big impact
of foreign-owned multinationals in the country.
GNI (or gross national product in the terminology of
the 1968 United Nations System of National Accounts) measures the
total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents. GNI
comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of
employees and property income) from nonresident sources. The World
Bank uses GNI per capita in U.S. dollars to classify countries for
analytical purposes and to determine borrowing eligibility.
*A significant part of Luxembourg's
population lives beyond its borders, giving it a top ranking, because
national income is divided by a smaller population than what produced it.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per
capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using
the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is
the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes
(less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net
receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property
income) from abroad.
GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually
converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons
across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official
exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from
the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth
fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of
conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor
that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding
years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the
country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan,
the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries
include the Eurozone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The data comes from
World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data
2009 GNI by Country (pdf:
Dec 2010, by country and PPP Methods.
PPP rates provide a standard measure allowing
comparison of real price levels between countries,just as
conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time.
The PPP conversion factors used here are derived from price surveys
covering 118 countries conducted by the International Comparison
Program. For Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) countries data come from the most recent round of
surveys, completed in 2000; the rest are either from the 1996 or the
1993 survey or earlier round and extrapolated to the 1996 benchmark.
Estimates for countries not included in the surveys are derived from
statistical models using available data.
Development Indicators 2010 - - 420 indicators from the World Development
Indicators (WDI) covering 209 countries from 1960 to 2009
Wealth & Health of Nations - - This interactive graph from
Sweden's Gapminder, shows how long
people live and how much money they earn. Click the play button to see how
countries have developed since 1800.
International Comparison Program 2005
The ICP is a complex statistical program that has been underway
since 1968. Over this time span, a variety of methodologies have been developed to solve problems encountered in previous
rounds and also to deal with the increasing scope of the comparison. The countries participating in the ICP were divided
into five regions for the 2005 ICP. This plus the Eurostat-OECD PPP program included 146 countries in the global
Each region and the Eurostat-OECD differ in the size and structure of their economies as well as statistical
capacity. Decisions were made during the developmental stages to ensure that the comparisons of countries within each region
were as consistent as possible. As a result, methodologies differed between regions which became a factor when the regional
results were calibrated to the global level. The purpose of this annex is to provide an overview of what was done in each
region, how the regional results were combined at the global level, and the resulting impact on the final PPPs.
Table 1 (International Comparison Program 2005
Final Results) provides a summary of the methodology used to estimate
basic heading PPPs for major aggregates of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by region. It also shows how the regional
PPPs by aggregate were linked for the global comparison. A brief review of issues for each aggregate will be provided.
First, however, more details will be provided about how the Eurostat-OECD entered into the global comparison and then how
the CIS region was linked.
Results for five regions (Africa, Asia, South America, West
Asia, and Eurostat-OECD) were calibrated to the global level using prices from the Ring comparison to compute between-regionn
basic heading PPPs which were used as the linking factors at each level of aggregation. The US was the numeraire
country in the Eurostat-OECD which was also the numeraire region when computing the linking factors.
Living Standards Measurement Study
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added
by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not
included in the valuation of output. Growth is calculated from
constant price GDP data in local currency. GDP per capita is gross
domestic product divided by midyear population.
GDP includes the output of the multinational sector,
which is very significant in Ireland (over 90% of Irish exports are
made by foreign-owned firms), it is more useful to use Gross National
Product - the total value of final goods and services produced in a
country plus income from Irish capital held abroad set-off against
transfers of net earnings of multinationals - in effect net income
outflows from Ireland . In Other OECD countries, there is only a
marginal difference between GDP and GNP.
World Bank study says 12 economies account for more than two-thirds of world’s
output; Chinese economy size cut by 40%; Ireland is fourth most expensive world
World Bank Development Indicators 2009
World Bank recommended resources:
The following are
comprehensive sites containing data organized by country: